Electricity and heat generation with gas (including landfill gas) derived from biomass
Biomass can be defined as the total mass of living organisms belonging to a species or a society consisting of various species at a given time. Biomass is also considered as an organic carbon.
Major biomass sources are listed below.
1. Herbal Biomass Resources
- Oilseed plants (canola, sunflower, soybean, etc.)
- Sugar and starch crops (potato, wheat, corn, sugar beet etc.)
- Fiber plants (flax, kenaf, hemp, sorghum, miscanthus, etc.)
- Protein crops (peas, beans, etc.)
- Vegetable and agricultural wastes (branches, stems, straw, roots, bark, etc.)
2.Biomass Resources from Forest and Forest Products
- Wood and forest waste (energy forests and energy crops, various trees)
3.Animal Biomass Resources
- The waste of animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, chickens, slaughterhouse waste and waste generated during the processing of animal products.
4.Biomass Resources From Organic Waste, Urban and Industrial Waste
- Sewage and bottom sludge, paper, industrial and food industry wastes, industrial and domestic wastewater, municipal and large industrial facilities wastes
According to the Law No. 5346, biomass; Provided that it is not imported; In addition to urban wastes, vegetable oil wastes are defined as resources obtained from agricultural and forestry products, including agricultural harvest wastes, and by-products resulting from the processing of these products and waste tires, and industrial waste sludge and treatment sludge.
Different types of fuels can be produced from biomass resources by applying the following methods.
Our Biomass Energy Potential
According to the Biomass Energy Potential Atlas (BEPA) data prepared by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources in order to determine the biomass energy potential, the total economic energy equivalent of our waste is around 3.9 MTEP / year. Detailed information can be found in the table below.
|Total Number of Animals||422.832.374 Piece|
|Animal Waste Amount||193.878.079 ton/year|
|Energy Value of Animal Waste (Theoretical)||4.385.371 TEP/year|
|Energy Value of Animal Waste (Economic)||1.084.506 TEP/year|
|Herbal Production Amount||171.399.002 ton/year|
|Herbal Waste Amount||62.206.754 ton/year|
|Energy Equivalent of Herbal Waste (Theoretical)||25.384.268 TEP/year|
|Energy Equivalent of Herbal Waste (Economic)||1.462.159 TEP/year|
|Municipal Solid Waste Amount||32.170.975 ton/year|
|Energy Values of Municipal Waste (Theoretical)||3.373.011 TEP/year|
|Energy Values of Municipal Wastes (Economic)||485.858 TEP/year|
|Energy Value of Forest Waste (Economical)||859.899 TEP/year|
|Total Economic Energy Equivalent of Waste:||3.892.422 TEP/year|
The installed power based on biomass energy, which is widely used in electricity generation, has reached 1238 MW (369 MW of waste heat) as of the end of September 2020, and the installed power development over the years has been as in the graph below. As Akterm Energy, we provide services with our expert team in the field of biogas.
What is Biogas?
Biogas is methane gas that occurs as a result of the decay of organic wastes in an oxygen-free environment at a certain temperature. Clean and high calorific value methane gas is the main component in natural gas.
From which organic wastes can we obtain biogas?
- Fruit, vegetables and leftovers
- Livestock wastes (such as grass, straw)
- Some industry wastes (such as leather, food, paper)
- Sewage treatment plant sludge
- Animal fertilizers
- Garden waste
How Can We Obtain Biogas?
Organic wastes are collected and stored in large tanks called digesters. Continuously mixed and heated waste begins to rot and produce biogas. Biogas is obtained through cooling and cleaning processes.
Organic wastes are collected in a sterile way in order to be purified from harmful microorganisms. These organic wastes collected are sent to the digester. Biogas production starts in the digester under an oxygen-free environment. In order to provide gas without interruption, the produced gases are accumulated in a gas storage tank. Gases that reduce the gas quality and cause fluctuations in the amount at the end of each process are eliminated and biogas is obtained. The excess gas that may come out during production should also be removed from the system. Excess methane gas is released by burning into the air as it has greenhouse effect and poisoning properties. A gas flame is attached to the system and excess gas production is resolved in this way. The final product obtained after all procedures are completed can be used as fertilizer. The gas mixture produced in the digester consists of 60-70% methane and 40-50% carbon dioxide.
While we can use biogas for direct heating and heating purposes, we can also use it as motor fuel for transportation. While we can generate electricity when we use it as turbine fuel, we can also reduce the cost of natural gas by adding it to the existing natural gas. It does not harm the nature during its use.