Electricity Generation with Hydraulic Energy
One of the recycled energy resources, hydraulic energy (Hydro water) is the most used. It is one of the oldest energy sources. First, thousands of years ago, people used running water to turn a wooden wheel and grind grain. The hydraulic energy source is water. Therefore, hydroelectric power plants must be on a water source. After the technology that transmits electricity over long distances, hydraulic energy has been used more. Hydroelectric power plants convert the power of flowing water into electricity. The amount of energy in the flowing water is determined by the flow or fall rate of the water. Water flowing in a large river carries a large amount of energy. Or when the water is dropped from a very high point, a high amount of energy is obtained again. The water, which is taken into channels or pipes in both ways, flows towards the turbines, enabling the turbines with arms like propellers to rotate for electricity generation. Turbines are connected to generators and they convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. is carried out. However, the limits of the facility power of small hydroelectric power plants take different values according to the economic and technological characteristics of the countries. In our country, the classification system made by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has been adopted.
According to this;
- Those below 100 KW power are micro,
- Those between 101-1000 KW power are mini,
- Those with power between 1001-10000 KW are considered as small hydroelectric power plants.
Hydropower potential in the world and Turkey
Micro, Mini and Small Hess
The topographical and hydrogeological structure of our country and the intensity of precipitation in some regions have enabled widespread availability of small hydroelectric power potential, as well as large water power potential. The development of small hydropower plants in Turkey began in 1902. From this date, the country’s many regions of government departments, the private sector and built many small HPP by local municipalities, however, present as a result of the rapid increase in the energy consumption area, to ensure maximum energy to Turkey’s economy and meet the growing energy demand priority in order scale HEPP projects development. During the last thirty years, the average annual increase in small HEPP capacity is around 5-10%.
Micro, Mini and Small HEPP Advantages
-There is no need to store water as in HEPPs, electricity energy is obtained directly from the flowing water.
-It is environmentally friendly. It can be commissioned with small changes in the river bed.
-It is a continuous 24/7 energy source.
-It meets the energy needs of villages and other units in rural areas that are difficult to access and cannot be fed from the national system. Thus, it helps to accelerate the socioeconomic and cultural development of these regions.
-It provides solutions to the increasing fuel finding and transportation problems of rural areas.
-Turbine-generator sets of small hydroelectric power plants are easy to type and standardize, which makes mechanical equipment cheaper and minimizes maintenance and operational problems. By making the turbine-generator and transformer as a block and automatic operations, many power plants in the same area can be controlled by a technician. As a result, the operating cost is low.
-Compared to fuel-fired power plants, the operating cost of energy generation is low and carbon
does not swing.
-Since the energy produced in small hydroelectric power plants is generally used in the region, there is no need for long transmission networks. This situation largely prevents energy losses.
-Industry establishment works related to the construction of water turbines have reached the final stage today.
All mechanical parts of mini, micro and even small hydroelectric facilities can be manufactured in our own industrial facilities with domestic facilities. The production of small capacity units increases the knowledge on this subject and enables the production of larger capacity units in the near future with the domestic industry.
-They are easy to maintain, cheap, and their service time is long.